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Juvenile Idiopathic Arthritis (JIA)

Juvenile Idiopathic Arthritis

Juvenile Idiopathic Arthritis (JIA) is an autoimmune, inflammatory joint disease of more than 6 weeks duration in children of less than 16 years of age. Common symptoms are joints which feel warm to touch, common indications of arthritis like swelling and tenderness at joints, Fever and rashes on skin, Stiffness and pain and sometimes not being able to bend or straighten joints completely.

Dr. Pradeepta Patro is one of the best JIA specialist in bbsr, Odisha.

  • Juvenile- Age less then 16yrs.
  • Idiopathic-the reason of the disease is not yet known.
  • Arthritis-Pain and swelling of the joint.
  • Kids get arthritis too
  • Remember two things-
     Arthritis in JIA -joint pain and swelling should persist for more than 6wks
     Before diagnosing JIA-other conditions should be excluded- for example-infection (viral, TB, etc.) sickle cell disease, metabolic diseases other hereditary conditions .
  • These are the some early signs and symptoms of arthritis of children:
     Warm and swelling of the joint-elbow, wrist, small joints of hand, hip, knee and ankle joint
     Low back pain in the early morning and more after getting up from the bed
     Heel pain-not able to put the foot on the ground
     Limping while walking
     Painful red eye and blurring of vision
     Fever for long duration not responding to multiple antibiotics
     Reddish rash over the body
     Swollen lymph node

Six types of JIA:

  • Systemic JIA (SoJIA or Still’s disease):
     High spiking fever-episodic, last at least 2wks,not responding to multiple antibiotics
     Skin reddish rash-more prominent during the spike of fever
     Swelling of lymph node, Enlarged liver and spleen
     During febrile episode-child has more joint pain and swelling
     During afebrile episode-child is playful
     Blood Investigation-Increased TLC/Platelet/ESR/CRP
     USG-liver and spleen might be enlarged
     Sometimes –Increased SGOT/SGPT
     S ferritin-will be high
Signs and symptoms of Gout

  • Poly articular JIA:
     Pain and swelling of five or more number of joints:
     Small joints of hand and finger commonly involved
     Resembles to rheumatoid arthritis
     Polyarthritis can be rheumatoid factor-positive or negative.
  • Oligo articular JIA-
    Pain and swelling of four or fewer joints typically large ones such as Elbow, knees and ankle.
    The children with oligo arthritis are more chances of developing red eye (chronic uveitis).
    Children with ANA positive in their blood have more risk of occurrence of red eye.
    So children with this group also need to consult an Eye doctor to exclude eye disease (Chronic Uveitis).
  • Enthesithis related Arthritis-(JIA-ERA):
     Mostly boys and after the age of 6yrs are commonly affected
     Pain at the sites of attachment of muscle tendon or ligament to the bone (Enthesithis) for example-achilis tendinitis
     Low back pain-Increased after prolong rest, more during the early morning after getting up from the bed
     Most common joint involved –Knee, hip and ankle joint
     Sometime affected children have HLA B 27 positive in the blood test
  • Juvenile Psoriatic Arthritis-
     Joint pain and swelling along with skin disorder called as psoriasis
     Psoriasis means scaling rash commonly occur behind the ears, elbows and knees, at the scalp and around the umbilicus
     Skin disease can occur after joint symptoms
  • Undifferentiated arthritis-
     if joint symptoms do not fit into single types that explained above then classified as undifferentiated

Enthesithis related Arthritis-(JIA-ERA)


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